The Adaptations for students with functional disabilities may concern student life, coursework or examinations. In France, the Summary of the FIED member universities practices gives an overview of what is being done about technical and pedagogical adaptations.
Technical adaptations can be:
- Lifts, access ramps;
- Parking access badges;
- Information desks at wheelchair level;
- Loan of small electric motorized vehicles;
- Ergonomic cushions;
- Dedicated rest rooms.
Some universities help students by providing them with suitable materials:
- Digital pens;
- Magnifying glasses;
- Large letter keyboards;
- Line Magnifiers;
- Supply of a voice recognition software (e.g. Dragon).
Some universities adapt the right materials for their platform especially for deaf and blind students:
- Audio and braille materials besides paper materials;
- Audiobooks instead of textbooks specially for maths or statistic;
- Subtitles are added to videos, thus ensuring that they can be seen by students with partial or total hearing loss;
- Use tools which provide the LMS with accessible versions of the files/resources that are uploaded within a course, automatically creating alternative versions (enhanced pdf, audio, electronic braille, ePub, HTML) allowing the students of a course to choose the type of file that best suits their needs.
The use of human resources:
- A buddy system can be implemented: a disabled student can be guided by another peer who can help him in certain situations;
- Administrative officers can act in multiple provinces and with local universities to support the disabled students.
Examinations can be adapted:
- Additional time during the exam session and/or when returning written tasks;
- Adaptation of tests; use of adapted equipment (Braille displays; foreign language keyboards, etc.);
- Individual exam-arrangements with e.g. the permission to type instead of handwriting;
- Impunity for spelling or grammatical errors;
- Composition in a private room with a school life assistant;
- Support of personal assistant;
- Assistance of a sign language interpreter or a secretary who reads scripts;
- Allow access to various personal aids or (computer) programs;
- Use of a laptop computer that has been emptied;
- Transmission of subjects in an adapted format (A3 format, line spacing, bold font, etc.);
- Authorization to take a break for tests lasting more than an hour and a half;
- Taking examinations in a different location or in a dedicated room.
Actions can be put in place for teachers to ensure inclusion in teaching practices.
At the beginning of their studies, students must be informed about the possibility to have some individual arrangements and to get a document about the recommendations for individual arrangements.
These individual arrangements could be:
- Alternative study materials;
- Alternative study modes;
- Getting lecture materials/slides in advance;
- Possibility to record lectures if recordings are not otherwise available;
- Extended loan period for course book loans.
Support for teachers based on pedagogical guides
To assist teachers, the Université de Poitiers (FIED-France) develops a pedagogical and on-line exam guide.
UTPL developed a Manual of pedagogical guidelines (UTPL, 2020) for inclusive practices in order to respond to the educational needs of different groups of students with special needs. It orients the curricular adaptations of first and second grades, known as non-significant. In terms of methodology, it suggests using specific methods and resources, adapting the organization of the classroom and the level of complexity of the class. Other suggested areas are directed to the evaluation of learning with the adaptation of techniques and instruments or the evaluation criteria.
The use of an accessible website
Various services for disabled students enrolled in the Open Education System of Anadolu University are offered on the Accessible OEF website (http://engelsizaof.anadolu.edu.tr/). Students with disabilities are helped on this website with many issues, especially the registration process, add-delete courses, the use of the e-campus system, exams and graduation. There is a sign language translation application on the barrier-free OEF site. Moreover, face-to-face student support services are offered in all OEF offices. Furthermore, all services and career support activities offered during the education process (from student support services to e-learning environments and materials, from exam organization to social and cultural activities) are planned through data management according to the specific needs of the students, by obtaining detailed health information from the students in the electronic environment upon entering the system.
Professional integration is one of the goals of universities.
The Université de Lille (FIED-France) develops:
- Awareness and support actions for professional integration;
- Sponsorship actions by professionals;
- Network of disability referents within the University.